For large parts, Baden-Württemberg has quite arid land due to the distribution of precipitation and the hydrogeological conditions. Examples are the plateaus of the Swabian Alps where precipitation is quick to seep to great depths, the north-eastern region and the middle region around the Neckar River. The arid areas contrast with the so-called excess-water areas, especially at Lake Constance and in the valleys of the Rhine, Iller and Danube rivers.
It was already clear at the turn of the 19th to the 20th Century that with ever-increasing industrialisation and the related sharp rise in the population of Stuttgart, the middle Neckar region and the Rems and Fils valleys, the local water resources would no longer be able to cater for the high increase in water needs in the medium term. The solution to this problem came in the form of Germany's first long-distance water supply company, the "Landeswasserversorgung".
Today, the drinking water supply of Baden-Württemberg is founded on three supply levels: the communal drinking water supply for cities and townships, the group water supplies as a fusion of several communities and the national long-distance water supply utilities. This structure has proven itself over a number of decades and is the basis for the strong security of supply in the state. Alongside the Landeswasserversorgung, which provides drinking water for the middle Neckar region and the north-east of Baden-Württemberg, there are additional long-distance water supply companies such as the Bodensee Wasserversorgung, the special-purpose Wasserversorgung Nordostwürttemberg association and the special-purpose Wasserversorgung Kleine Kinzig association just to name a few.
The Landeswasserversorgung obtains the water for drinking from three different "sources": Ground water from both the Donauried north of Ulm and from Burgberg contribute the most. Spring water - strictly speaking also ground water which appears at the surface - from the Buchbrunnenquelle near Dischingen makes up some 17% of the water catchment, while river water from the Danube makes up 34%.